This is very much work in progress. More coming soon!


Dozeman, Thomas B. “The Book of Joshua in Recent Research.” Currents in Biblical Research 15.3 (2017): 270-288.

Seibert, Eric A. “Recent Research on Divine Violence in the Old Testament (with Special Attention to Christian Theological Perspectives).” Currents in Biblical Research 15.1 (2016): 8-40.

Trimm, Charles. “Recent Research on Warfare in the Old Testament.” Currents in Biblical Research 10.2 (2012): 171-216.

Essay Collections

Daniel, Carroll RM, and J. Blair Wilgus, eds. Wrestling with the violence of God: Soundings in the Old Testament. Eisenbrauns, 2015

Ollenburger, Ben C. Struggles for Shalom: Peace and Violence across the Testaments. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2014.

Thomas, Heath A., Jeremy Evans, and Paul Copan, eds. Holy War in the Bible: Christian Morality and an Old Testament Problem. InterVarsity Press, 2013.

De Villiers, Pieter, and Jan Willem Van Henten, eds. Coping with violence in the New Testament. Brill, 2012.

Bergmann, Michael, Michael J. Murray, and Michael C. Rea. “Divine evil?: the moral character of the God of Abraham.” (2010).

Hess, Richard S., and Elmer A. Martens, eds. War in the Bible and Terrorism in the Twenty-first Century. Vol. 2. Eisenbrauns, 2008.

Bernat, David A., and Jonathan Klawans, eds. Religion and Violence: The Biblical Heritage. Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2007.

Matthews, Shelly, and E. Leigh Gibson, eds. Violence in the New Testament. Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2005.

Gard, Daniel L., Eugene H. Merrill, and Tremper Longman III. Show them no mercy: 4 views on God and Canaanite genocide. No. 17. Zondervan, 2003.

Crenshaw, James L., David Penchansky, and Paul L. Redditt, eds. Shall not the judge of all the earth do what is right?: studies on the nature of God in tribute to James L. Crenshaw. Eisenbrauns, 2000.

Books addressing the Disturbing Parts of Scripture

Longman, Tremper III. Confronting Old Testament Controversies: Pressing Questions about Evolution, Sexuality, History, and Violence. Baker Books, 2019.

Paynter, Helen. God of Violence Yesterday, God of Love Today?: Wrestling Honestly with the Old Testament. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2019.

Hofreiter, Christian. Making Sense of Old Testament Genocide: Christian Interpretations of Herem Passages. Oxford University Press, 2018.

Walton, John H., and J. Harvey Walton. “Lost World of the Israelite Conquest.” (2017).

Boyd, Gregory A. The Crucifixion of the Warrior God: Volumes 1 & 2. Fortress Press, 2017.

Boyd, Gregory A. Cross Vision: How the Crucifixion of Jesus Makes Sense of Old Testament Violence. Fortress Press, 2017.

L. Daniel Hawk. The Violence of the Biblical God: Canonical Narrative and Christian Faith. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2019

Schlimm, Matthew Richard. This Strange and Sacred Scripture: Wrestling with the Old Testament and Its Oddities. Baker Academic, 2015.

Butler, Joshua Ryan. “The Skeletons in God’s Closet.” (2014).

Copan, Paul, and Matt Flannagan. Did God really command genocide?: Coming to Terms with the Justice of God. Baker Books, 2014.

Römer, Thomas. Dark God: Cruelty, Sex, and Violence in the Old Testament. New York: Paulist Press, 2013.

Ramage, Matthew J. Dark Passages of the Bible. CUA Press, 2013.

Sprinkle, Preston. Fight: A Christian Case for Non-Violence. David C Cook, 2013.

Flood, Derek. Disarming Scripture: Cherry-picking liberals, violence-loving conservatives, and why we all need to learn to read the Bible like Jesus did. Metanoia Books, 2014.

Creach, Jerome FD. Violence in Scripture: Interpretation: Resources for the Use of Scripture in the Church. Westminster John Knox Press, 2013.

Seibert, Eric A. The violence of scripture: Overcoming the Old Testament’s troubling legacy. Fortress Press, 2012.

Sparks, Kenton L. Sacred word, broken word: biblical authority and the dark side of Scripture. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2012.

Lamb, David T. God Behaving Badly: Is the God of the Old Testament Angry, Sexist and Racist?. InterVarsity Press, 2011.

Jenkins, Philip. Laying Down the Sword: Why we can’t ignore the Bible’s violent verses. Harper Collins, 2011.

Copan, Paul. Is God a Moral Monster?: Making Sense of the Old Testament God. Baker Books, 2011.

Stark, Thom. The human faces of God: What scripture reveals when it gets God wrong (and why Inerrancy tries to hide it). Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2011.

Stark, Thom. Is God a Moral Compromiser?: A Critical Review of Paul Copan’s “Is God a Moral Monster”, 2011

Davies, Eryl W. The Immoral Bible: Approaches to Biblical Ethics. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2010.

Seibert, Eric A. Disturbing Divine Behavior: Troubling Old Testament Images of God. Fortress Press, 2009.

Wright, Christopher JH. The God I Don’t Understand: Reflections on Tough Questions of Faith. Zondervan, 2008.

Collins, John Joseph. Does the Bible justify violence?. Fortress Press, 2004.

Gard, Daniel L., Eugene H. Merrill, and Tremper Longman III. Show them no mercy: 4 views on God and Canaanite genocide. No. 17. Zondervan, 2003.

Penchansky, David. What Rough Beast?: Images of God in the Hebrew Bible. Westminster John Knox Press, 1999.

Lüdemann, Gerd. The unholy in Holy Scripture: The dark side of the Bible. Westminster John Knox Press, 1997.

Craigie, Peter C. The problem of war in the Old Testament. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1978.

Wenham, John William. The Goodness of God. Inter-Varsity Press, 1974.


Neville, David J. The Vehement Jesus: Grappling with Troubling Gospel Texts. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2017.

Strauss, Mark L. Jesus Behaving Badly: The Puzzling Paradoxes of the Man from Galilee. InterVarsity Press, 2015.

Avalos, Hector I. The Bad Jesus: The Ethics of New Testament Ethics. Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2015.

Joseph, Simon J. The Nonviolent Messiah: Jesus, Q, and the Enochic Tradition. Augsburg Fortress Publishers, 2014.     

Neufeld, Thomas Yoder. Jesus and the Subversion of Violence: Wrestling with the New Testament Evidence. SPCK, 2011.

Sim, David C. “The pacifist Jesus and the violent Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew.” HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67.1 (2011).

Reid, Barbara E. “Violent endings in Matthew’s parables and Christian nonviolence.” The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 66.2 (2004): 237-255.

Wink, Walter. “Neither Passivity nor Violence: Jesus’ Third Way (Matt. 5: 38-42 par.).” The love of enemy and nonretaliation in the New Testament (1992): 102-25.

Bruce, Frederick Fyvie. The hard sayings of Jesus. Hodder and Stoughton, 1983.

New Testament

D. J. Neville, A Peaceable Hope: Contesting Violent Eschatology in New Testament Narratives (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2013).

De Villiers, Pieter GR. “Hermeneutical perspectives on violence in the New Testament.” Coping with violence in the New Testament (2012): 227-246.

Neufeld, Thomas R. Yoder. Killing Enmity: Violence and the New Testament. Baker Academic, 2011.

Neville, David J. “Toward a teleology of peace: Contesting Matthew’s violent eschatology.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 30.2 (2007): 131-161.

War in the Bible and the ANE

Seevers, Boyd. Warfare in the Old Testament: The Organization, Weapons, and Tactics of Ancient Near Eastern Armies. Kregel Academic, 2013.

Trimm, Charles. “Recent Research on Warfare in the Old Testament.” Currents in Biblical Research 10.2 (2012): 171-216.

Carroll, Robert. “War in the Hebrew Bible.” War and Society in the Greek World. Routledge, 2012. 38-57.

Longman III, Tremper, and Daniel G. Reid. God is a Warrior. Zondervan, 2010.

Crouch, Carly Lorraine. War and Ethics in the Ancient Near East: Military Violence in Light of Cosmology and History. Vol. 407. Walter de Gruyter, 2009.

Hess, Richard S. “War in the Hebrew Bible: An Overview.” War in the Bible and Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century(2008): 19-32.

Glick, Mina. Herem in Biblical law and narrative. University of Pennsylvania, 2007.

Niditch, Susan. “War and Reconciliation in the Traditions of Ancient Israel: Historical, Literary, and Ideological Considerations.” War and Peace in the Ancient World (2007): 141.

Hamblin, William J. Warfare in the ancient Near East to 1600 BC: Holy warriors at the dawn of history. Routledge, 2006

Tite, Philip L. Conceiving peace and violence: A New Testament legacy. University Press of America, 2004.

Bolin, Thomas M. “Warfare.” The Biblical World 2 (2002).

Von Rad, Gerhard. Holy War in Ancient Israel. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2000.
Desjardins, Michell. Peace, violence and the New Testament. Bloomsbury Publishing, 1997.

Firestone, Reuven. “Conceptions of Holy War in Biblical and Qur’ānic Tradition.” The Journal of Religious Ethics (1996): 99-123.

Niditch, Susan. War in the Hebrew Bible: a study in the ethics of violence. Oxford University Press, 1995.

Walzer, Michael. “The Idea of Holy War in Ancient Israel.” The Journal of Religious Ethics (1992): 215-228.

Younger, K. Lawson. Ancient Conquest Accounts: A Study in Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical History Writing. Vol. 98. A&C Black, 1990.

Kang, Sa-Moon. Divine war in the Old Testament and in the ancient Near East. Vol. 177. Walter de Gruyter, 1989.

Hobbs, Trevor Raymond. A time for war: a study of warfare in the Old Testament. M. Glazier, 1989.

Jones, Gwilym H. “The concept of holy war.” The World of Ancient Israel. Sociological, Anthropological and Political Perspectives Essays by Members of the Society for Old Testament Study (Cambridge 1989) s (1989): 299-321.

Lind, Millard. Yahweh is a warrior: the theology of warfare in ancient Israel. Herald Press (VA), 1980.

Craigie, Peter C. The problem of war in the Old Testament. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1978.

Miller, Patrick D. The divine warrior in early Israel. Brill, 1973.

Lind, Millard. Paradigm of Holy War in the Old Testament. Chicago Society of Biblical Research, 1971.

Gottwald, Norman K. “‘Holy War’in Deuteronomy: Analysis and Critique.” Review and Expositor 61 (1964): 297-310.

Brekelmans, Christianus Henricus Wilhelmus. De òherem in het Oude Testament. Diss. Nijmegen: Centrale Drukkerij, 1959.

Divine Wrath

Wynne, Jeremy J. Wrath among the perfections of God’s life. A&C Black, 2010.

Travis, Stephen. Christ and the Judgement of God: The Limits of Divine Retribution in New Testament Thought. Paternoster, 2009.

Fretheim, Terence E. “Theological Reflections on the Wrath of God in the Old Testament.” Horizons in Biblical Theology 24.2 (2002): 1-26.

Lane, Tony. “The Wrath of God as an Aspect of the Love of God.” Nothing Greater, Nothing Better: Theological Essays on the Love of God (2001): 138-67.

Peels, Hendrik George Laurens. The Vengeance of God: The Meaning of the Root NQM and the Function of the NQM-texts in the Context of Divine Revelation in the Old Testament. Vol. 31. Brill, 1995.

Herion, Gary A. “Wrath of God (OT).” The Anchor Bible Dictionary (1992): 989-996.

Baloian, Bruce Edward. Anger in the Old Testament. Vol. 99. Lang, Peter, Publishing Incorporated, 1992.

Erlandsson, Seth. “The Wrath of YHWH.” Tyndale Bulletin 23 (1972): 111-116.

MacGregor, G. H. (1961). The Concept of the Wrath of God in the New Testament. New Testament Studies7(2), 101-109.

Leon Morris, The Biblical Doctrine of Judgement (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1960)

Hanson, A. T. The Wrath of the Lamb (London: SCM, 1957).

Morris, Leon. “The Wrath of God.” The Expository Times 63.5 (1952): 142-145.

Tasker, Randolph Vincent Greenwood. The Biblical Doctrine of the Wrath of God. Tyndale Press, 1951.

Dodd, C. H. (1932). The epistle of Paul to the Romans (Vol. 340). Hodder and Stoughton.


Wolterstorff, Nicholas. “Reading Joshua.” Divine Evil? The Moral Character of the God of Abraham (2011): 236-56.

Earl, Douglas S. The Joshua Delusion?: Rethinking Genocide in the Bible. Casemate Publishers, 2011.

McConville, Gordon, and Stephen Williams. Joshua. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2010.

Brueggemann, Walter. Divine presence amid violence: Contextualizing the Book of Joshua. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2009.

Hess, Richard S. “The Jericho and Ai of the Book of Joshua.” Critical Issues in Early Israelite History 3 (2008): 33.

Hawk, L. Daniel. “The God of the Conquest: The Theological Problem of the Book of Joshua.” TBT 46 (2008): 141-47.

Hawk, L. Daniel. “Conquest Reconfigured: Recasting Warfare in the Redaction of Joshua.” Writing and Reading War: Rhetoric, Gender, and Ethics in Biblical and Modern Contexts(2008): 145-60.

Earl, Douglas. Reading Joshua as Christian Scripture. Diss. Durham University, 2008.

Rowlett, Lori L. Joshua and the rhetoric of violence: A new historicist analysis. A&C Black, 1996.

Stone, Lawson G. “Ethical and Apologetic Tendencies in the Redaction of the Book of Joshua.” The Catholic Biblical Quarterly 53.1 (1991): 25-36.

Wood, Bryant G. “Did the Israelites conquer Jericho? A new look at the archaeological evidence.” The Biblical archaeology review 16.2 (1990): 44-59.

Niehaus, Jeffrey Jay. Joshua and Ancient Near Eastern Warfare. Evangelical Theological Society, 1988.


Hofreiter, Christian. Making Sense of Old Testament Genocide: Christian Interpretations of Herem Passages. Oxford University Press, 2018.

Versluis, Arie. The Command to Exterminate the Canaanites: Deuteronomy 7. Brill, 2017.

Hofreiter, Christian. Reading herem texts as Christian scripture. Diss. Oxford University, UK, 2013.

Moberly, R. W. L. “Election and the transformation of Herem.” University of Notre Dame Press, 2013. 67-98.

Niditch, Susan. “War and Reconciliation in the Traditions of Ancient Israel: Historical, Literary, and Ideological Considerations.” War and Peace in the Ancient World (2007): 141.

Hoffman, Yair. “The Deuteronomistic concept of the herem.” Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 111.2 (1999): 196-210.

Suzuki, Yoshihide. “A New Aspect of hrm in Deuteronomy in View of an Assimilation Policy of King Josiah.” AJBI 21 (1995): 3-27.

Lilley, J. P. U. “UNDERSTANDING THE ִHEREM.” Tyndale Bulletin 44 (1993): 169-177.

Stern, Philip D. The Biblical ḥerem: a window on Israel’s religious experience. No. 211. Scholars Press, 1991.


Collins, John J. “The God of Joshua.” Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament 28.2 (2014): 212-228.

Kellner, Menachem. “And Yet, the Texts Remain: The Problem of the Command to Destroy the Canaanites.” The Gift of the Land and the Fate of the Canaanites in Jewish Thought: 153-179.

Zehnder, Markus, and Hallvard Hagelia. Encountering violence in the Bible. Vol. 55. Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2013.

Flannagan, Matthew, and Paul Copan. “Does the Bible condone genocide.” In Defense of the Bible (2013).

Morriston, Wesley. “The Problem of Apparently Morally Abhorrent Divine Commands.” The Blackwell Companion to the Problem of Evil (2013): 144-159.

Jones, Clay. “Killing the Canaanites.”.” Christian Research Institute CRI (2013).

Hofreiter, Christian. “Genocide in Deuteronomy and Christian Interpretation.” Interpreting Deuteronomy: Issues and Approaches (2012): 240-62.

Renard, John. Fighting words: Religion, violence, and the interpretation of sacred texts. Univ of California Press, 2012.

Anderson, Gary. “What about the Canaanites.” Bergmann, Murray, and Rea (2011) 269382 (2011).

Wolterstorff, Nicholas. “Reading Joshua.” Divine Evil? The Moral Character of the God of Abraham (2011): 236-56.

Jones, Clay. “Killing the Canaanites.”.” Christian Research Institute CRI (2010).

Volf, Miroslav. Exclusion & embrace: A theological exploration of identity, otherness, and reconciliation. Abingdon Press, 2010.

Copan, Paul. “Yahweh wars and the Canaanites: Divinely-mandated genocide or corporate capital punishment? Responses to critics.” (2009).

Morriston, Wesley. “Did God Command Genocide? A Challenge to the Biblical Inerrantist.” (2009).

CHRISTI, PHILOSOPHIA. “Did God Command Genocide?.” PHILOSOPHIA CHRISTI 11.1 (2009).

Rauser, Randal. ““Let Nothing That Breathes Remain Alive”: On the Problem of Divinely Commanded Genocide.” (2009).

Jones, Clay. “We don’t hate sin so we don’t understand what happened to the Canaanites.” Philosophia Christi 11.1 (2009): 53-54.

Copan, Paul. “Is Yahweh a moral monster?.” Philosophia Christi 10.1 (2008).

Thatcher, Adrian. The savage text: The use and abuse of the Bible. Vol. 16. John Wiley & Sons, 2008.

Avalos, Hector. “The Letter Killeth: A Plea for Decanonizing Violent Biblical Texts.” Journal of Religion, Conflict, and Peace1.1 (2007): 1.

Young, Jeremy. Violence of God and the War on Terror. Church Publishing, Inc., 2007.

Klawans, Jonathan. “Introduction: Religion, Violence, and the Bible.” Religion and Violence: The Biblical Heritage: 1-15.

Avalos, Hector. Fighting words: The origins of religious violence. Prometheus Books, 2005.

Fretheim, Terence E. “God and Violence in the Old Testament.” Word and World 24.1 (2004): 18-28.

Fretheim, Terence E. ““I was only a little angry” Divine Violence in the Prophets.” Interpretation 58.4 (2004): 365-375.

Collins, John J. “The zeal of Phinehas: The Bible and the legitimation of violence.” Journal of Biblical Literature 122.1 (2003): 3-21.

Kaminsky, Joel S. “Did Election Imply the Mistreatment of Non-Israelites?.” Harvard Theological Review 96.4 (2003): 397-425.

Anderson, Paul N. “Genocide or Jesus: A God of Conquest or Pacifism?.” (2003).

Cowles, C. S. “The case for radical discontinuity.” CS Cowles, Daniel L. Gard, Stanley N. Gundry, Eugene H. Merrill. Show Them No Mercy 4 (2003).

Steussy, Marti J. “The Problematic God of Samuel.” Shall not the Judge of all the earth do what is right (2000): 127-161.

Whybray, R. N. “‘Shall Not the Judge of All the Earth Do What Is Just?’God’s Oppression of the Innocent in the Old Testament.” Shall Not the Judge of All the Earth Do What Is Right? Studies on the Nature of God in Tribute to James L. Crenshaw (2000): 1-19.

Holloway, Jeph. “The Ethical Dilemma of Holy War.” Southwestern Journal of Theology 41 (1998): 44-69.

Zenger, Erich. A God of vengeance?: Understanding the Psalms of divine wrath. Westminster John Knox Press, 1996.

Whybray, Roger N. “The immorality of God: Reflections on some passages in Genesis, Job, Exodus and Numbers.” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 21.72 (1996): 89-120.

Van Winkle, Dwight. “Canaanite Genocide and Amalekite Genocide and the God of Love.” (1989).

Miller Jr, Patrick D. “God the Warrior: A Problem in Biblical Interpretation and Apologetics.” Union Seminary Magazine19.1 (1965): 39-46.